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Bishop, W.M. & Richardson, R.J. 2018. Influence of Phoslock® on legacy phosphorus, nutrient ratios, and algal assemblage composition in hypereutrophic water resources. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 25: 4544. 


Ding, S., Sun, Q., Chen, X., Liu, Q., Wang, D., Lin, J., Zhang, C., Tsang, D.C.W., 2018. Synergistic adsorption of phosphorus by iron in lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®): New insight into sediment phosphorus immobilization. Water Research, 134, 32-43.


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Kasprzyka, M., Obarska-Pempkowiaka, H., Masib, F. & Gajewskaa, M. 2018. Possibilities of Phoslock® application to remove phosphorus compounds from wastewater treated in hybrid wetlands. Ecological Engineering. 122. 84-90. 


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Reitzel, B.K., Jensen, H.S., 2018. Test of lanthanum dispersion from Phoslock under a range of different laboratory conditions. University of South Denmark. 1–29.

Yin, H., Douglas, G.B., Cai, Y., Liu, C., Copetti D., 2018. Remediation of internal phosphorus loads with modified clays, influence of fluvial suspended particulate matter and response of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. Science of the Total Environment 610–611, 101–110.



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Epe, T.S., Finsterle, K., Yasseri, S., 2017. Nine years of phosphorus management with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®) in a eutrophic, shallow swimming lake in Germany, Lake and Reservoir Management, 33(2) 119 – 129. 


Kasprzyk, M. & Gajewska, M. 2017. Preliminary results from application Phoslock to remove phosphorus compounds from wastewater. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 18 (4) 82-89. 


Kurzbaum, E., Raizner, Y., Cohen, O., Rubinstein, G. & Bar Shalom, O. 2017. Lanthanum-modified bentonite: potential of efficient removal of phosphates from fishpond effluents. Environment Science and Pollution Research International. 24(17):15182-15186. 


Lin, J., Zhong, Y., Fan, H., Song, C., Yu, C., Gao, Y., Xiong, X., Wu, C. & Liu, J. 2017. Chemical treatment of contaminated sediment for phosphorus control and subsequent effects on ammonia-oxidizing and ammonia-denitrifying microorganisms and on submerged macrophyte revegetation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 1007-1018.


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Nürnberg, G.K., 2017. Attempted management of cyanobacteria by Phoslock (lanthanum-modified clay) in Canadian lakes: water quality results and predictions. Lake and Reservoir Management, 33(20, 163 – 170.


Reitzel, K., Balslev, K.A. & Jensen, H.S. 2017. The influence of lake water alkalinity and humic substances on particle dispersion and lanthanum desorption from Phoslock. Water Research. In Press. 


Waajen, G., Pauwels, M. & Lurling, M. 2017. Effects of combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment on aquatic macro invertebrate fauna. Water Research. In press. 


Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Lürling, M., 2017. Bio-Accumulation of Lanthanum from Lanthanum Modified Bentonite treatments in lake restoration. Environmental Pollution, 230, 911-918. 


Wang, Y., Ding, S., Wang, D., Sun, Q., Lin, J., Shi, L., Chen, M. and Zhang, C. 2017. Static layer: A key to immobilisation of phosphorus in sediments amended with lanthanum modified bentonite (Phoslock®). Chemical Engineering Journal. 325. 49-58. 


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Copetti, D., Finsterle, K., Marziali, L., Stefani, F., Gianni Tartari, G., Douglas, G., Reitzel, K., Spears, B., Winfield, I.J., Crosa, G., D’Haese, P., Yasseri, S. & Lürling, M. 2016. Eutrophication management in surface waters using lanthanum-modified bentonite: a review. Journal of Water Research. 97. 162-174.


Dithmer, L., Nielsen, U.G., Lürling, M., Spears, B.M., Yasseri, S., Lundberg, D., Moore, A., Jensen, N.D. & Reitzel, K. 2016. Responses in sediment phosphorus and lanthanum concentrations composition across 10 lakes following applications of lanthanum modified bentonite. Water Research. 97. 101-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.02.011

Dithmer, L., Nielsen, U.G., Lundberg, D. & Reitzel, K. 2016. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on the efficiency of P sequestration by a lanthanum modified clay. Water Research. 97. 39-46. 


Herrmann, H., Nolde, J., Berger, S., Heise, S., 2016. Aquatic ecotoxicity of lanthanum - A review and an attempt to derive water and sediment quality criteria. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 124, 213–238. 


Douglas, G.B., Hamilton, D.P, Robb, M.S., Pan, G., Spears, B.M & Lurling, M. 2016. Guiding principles for the development and application of solid-state phosphorus adsorbents for freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic Ecology. 1-21. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10452-016-9575-2

Douglas, G.B., Lurling, M & Spears, B.M. 2016. Assessment of changes in potential nutrient limitation in an impounded river after application of lanthanum-modified bentonite. Water Research. 97. 47-54. 

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Kurzbaum, E. & Shalom, O.B. 2016. The potential of phosphate removal from dairy wastewater and municipal wastewater effluents using a lanthanum-modified bentonite. Applied Clay Science. 123. 182-186. 

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Lin, J., Zhong, Y., Fan, H., Song, C., Yu, C., Gao, Y., Xiong, X., Wu, C., Liu, J., 2016. Chemical treatment of contaminated sediment for phosphorus control and subsequent effects on ammonia oxidizing and ammonia-denitrifying microorganisms and on submerged macrophyte revegetation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 1007 - 1018. 


Liu, S., Li, J., Yang, Y., Wang, J., Ding, H., 2016. Influence of environmental factors on the phosphorus adsorption of lanthanum-modified bentonite in eutrophic water and sediment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(3), 2487-94. 


Noyma, N.P., de Magalhães, L., Furtado, L.L., Mucci, M., van Oosterhout, F., Huszar, V.L., Marinho, M.M., Lürling, M., 2016. Controlling cyanobacterial blooms through effective flocculation and sedimentation with combined use of flocculants and phosphorus adsorbing natural soil and modified clay. Water Research, 97, 26-38. 


Nürnberg, G.K. & LaZerte, B.D. 2016. Trophic state decrease after lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock) application to a hyper-eutrophic polymictic urban lake frequented by Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Lake and Reservoir Management. 32(1), 74-88. 


Schindler, D.W., Carpenter, S.R., Chapra, S.C., Hecky, R.E. & Orihel, D.M. 2016. Reducing phosphorus to curb lake eutrophication is a success. Environmental Science and Technology. 50(17). 8923-8929. 


Spears, B.M., Mackay, E.B., Yasseri, S., Gunn, I.D.M., Waters, K.E., Andrews, C., Cole, S., de Ville, M., Kelly, A., Meis, S., Moore, A.L., Nürnberg, G.K., van Oosterhout, F., Pitt, J., Madgwick, G., Woods, H.J. & Lürling, M. 2016. A meta-analysis of water quality and aquatic macrophyte responses in 18 lakes treated with lanthanum modified bentonite (PHOSLOCK®). Water Research. 97.111-121. 


Su, Y., Zhang, C., Liu, J., Weng, Y., Li, H., Zhang, D., 2016. Assessing the impacts of phosphorus inactive clay on phosphorus release control and phytoplankton community structure in eutrophic lakes. Environmental Pollution, 219, 620-630. 


Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Douglas, G. & Lürling, M. 2016. Management of eutrophication in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands) using combined flocculant Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment. Water Research. 97.83-95. 


Waajen, G., van Oosterhout, F., Douglas, G. & Lurling, M. 2016. Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication. Water Research. 97. pg 69-82. 


Wang, C., Bai, L., Jiang, H.L., Xu, H., 2016. Algal bloom sedimentation induces variable control of lake eutrophication by phosphorus inactivating agents. Science of the Total Environment, 557–558, 479–488. 


Wang, C., Jiang, H.L., Xu, H., Yin, H., 2016. Variation of physicochemical properties of drinking water treatment residuals and Phoslock® induced by fulvic acid adsorption: Implication for lake restoration. Environmental Science Pollution Research, 23(1), 351-65. 


Yasseri, S. & Epe, T.S. 2016. Analysis of the La:P ratio in lake sediments - Vertical and spatial distribution assessed by a multiple-core survey. Water Research. 97. 96-100. 


Yin,H., Kong, M., Han, M. & Fan, C. 2016. Influence of sediment resuspension on the efficacy of geoengineering materials in the control of internal phosphorous loading from shallow eutrophic lakes. Environmental Pollution. 1-12. 



Guido Waajen,Frank van Oosterhout,Grant Douglas,Miquel Lürling.Geo-engineering experiments in two urban ponds to control eutrophication.Water Research,1-14.



Bishop, W.M., McNabb, T., Cormican, I., Willis, B.E., Hyde, S., 2014. Operational evaluation of Phoslock phosphorus locking technology in Laguna Niguel Lake, California. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 225 (7), 1-11. 


Gunn, I.D.M., Meis, S., Maberly, S.C., Spears, B.M., 2014. Assessing the responses of aquatic macrophytes to the application of a lanthanum modified bentonite clay, at Loch Flemington, Scotland, UK. Hydrobiologia 737(1), 309-320. 


Lürling, M., Van Oosterhout, F., Waajen, G., 2014. Humic substances interfere with phosphate removal by lanthanum modified clay in controlling eutrophication. Water Research, 54, 78-88.


Mackay, E.B., Maberly, S.C., Pan, G., Reitzel, K., Bruere, A., Corker, N., Douglas, G., Egemose, S., Hamilton, D., Hatton-Ellis, T., Huser, B., Li, W., Meis, S., Moss, B., Lürling, M., Phillips, G., Yasseri, S., Spears, B.M., 2014. Geoengineering in lakes: welcome attraction or fatal distraction? Inland Waters, 4(4), 349 - 356. 


Moss, M.T., Taffs, K.H., Longstaff, B.J., Ginn, B.K., 2014. Establishing ecological reference conditions and tracking post-application effectiveness of lanthanum saturated bentonite clay (Phoslock®) for reducing phosphorous in aquatic ecosystems: an applied paleolimnological approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 141, 77-85. 


Novak, P.A. and Chambers, J.M., 2014. Investigation of nutrient thresholds to guide restoration and management of two impounded rivers in south-western Australia. Ecological Engineering, 68, 116-123. 


Spears, B.M., Maberly, S.C., Pan, G, Mackay, E., Bruere. A., Corker. N., Douglas, G., Egemose, S., Hamilton, D., Hatton-Ellis, T., Huser, B., Li,W., Meis, S., Moss, B., Luerling, M., Phillips, G., Yasseri, S., Reitzel, K., 2014. Geoengineering in lakes: a crisis of confidence? Environmental Science & Technology, 48(17), 9977–9979. 


Van Oosterhout, F., Goitom, E., Roessink, I., Lürling, M., 2014. Lanthanum from a modified clay used in eutrophication control is bioavailable to the Marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis). Plos One, 9(7), e102410. 


Zamparas, M. and Zacharias, I., 2014. Restoration of eutrophic freshwater by managing internal nutrient loads. A review. Science of The Total Environment, 496, 551-562.



Crosa, G., Yasseri, S., Nowak, K.E., Canziani, A., Roella, V., Zaccara, S., 2013. Recovery of Lake Varese: reducing trophic status through internal P load capping. Fundamental and Applied Limnology, 183(1), 49 – 61.


Lürling, M. and van Oosterhout, F., 2013a. Controlling eutrophication by combined bloom precipitation and sediment phosphorus inactivation. Water Research, 47(17), 6527-6537.


Lürling, M. and Van Oosterhout, F., 2013b. Case study on the efficacy of a lanthanum enriched clay (Phoslock®) in controlling eutrophication in Lake Het Groene Eiland (The Netherlands). Hydrobiologia, 710(1), 253-263. 


Márquez-Pacheco, H., Hansen, A.M., Falcón-Rojas, A., 2013. Phosphorous control in a eutrophied reservoir. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20(12), 8446-8456.


Meis, S., Spears, B.M., Maberly, S.C., O'Malley, M.B., Perkins, R.G., 2013. Assessing the mode of action of Phoslock® in the control of phosphorus release from the bed sediments in a shallow lake (Loch Flemington, UK). Water Research, 47 (13), 4460-4473. 


Ohtake, T., Kobayashi, S., Oka, M., Furuya, R., Iwagami, M., Tsutsumi, D., Mochida, Y., Maesato, K., Ishioka, K., Moriya, H., Hidaka, S., 2013. Lanthanum Carbonate Delays Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification Compared With Calcium-Based Phosphate Binders in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Pilot Study. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 18 (5), 439-446.


Reitzel, K., Andersen, F.Ø., Egemose, S., Jensen, H.S., 2013. Phosphate adsorption by lanthanum modified bentonite clay in fresh and brackish water. Water Research, 47(8), 2787-2796.


Reitzel, K., Lotter, S., Dubke, M., Egemose, S., Jensen, H.S., Andersen, F.Ø., 2013. Effects of Phoslock® treatment and chironomids on the exchange of nutrients between sediment and water. Hydrobiologia, 703(1), 189-202. 


Spears, B.M., Meis, S., Anderson, A., Kellou, M., 2013. Comparison of phosphorus (P) removal properties of materials proposed for the control of sediment P release in UK lakes. Science of The Total Environment, 442, 103-110. 


Spears, B.M., Lürling, M., Yasseri, S., Castro-Castellon, A.T., Gibbs, M., Meis, S., McDonald, C., McIntosh, J., Sleep, D., Van Oosterhout, F., 2013. Lake responses following lanthanum-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock®) application: an analysis of water column lanthanum data from 16 case study lakes. Water Research, 47(15), 5930-5942. 


Spears, B.M., Dudley, B., Reitzel, K., Rydin, E., 2013. Geo-Engineering in Lakes-A Call for Consensus. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 3953-3954. 


Van Oosterhout, F. and Lürling, M., 2013. The effect of phosphorus binding clay (Phoslock®) in mitigating cyanobacterial nuisance: a laboratory study on the effects on water quality variables and plankton. Hydrobiologia, 710, 265-277.



Liu, B., Liu, X.G., Yang, J., Garman, D., Zhang, K., Zhang, H.G., 2012. Research and application of in-situ control technology for sediment rehabilitation in eutrophic water bodies. Water Science & Technology, 65 (7), 1190-1199. 


Lürling, M. and Faasen, E.J., 2012. Controlling toxic cyanobacteria: effects of dredging and phosphorus-binding clay on cyanobacteria and microcystins. Water Research, 46 (5), 1447-1459.


Meis, S., 2012. Investigating Forced Recovery from Eutrophication in Shallow Lakes (Ph.D. thesis). Cardiff University, United Kingdom. 


Meis, S., Spears, B.M., Maberly, S.C., Perkins, R.G., 2012. Sediment amendment with Phoslock® in Clatto reservoir (Dundee, UK): Investigating changes in sediment elemental composition and phosphorus fractionation. Journal of Environmental Management, 93(1), 185-193.


SEPRO., 2012. Phoslock Phosphorus Locking Technology: An Overview of Phoslock and Use in Aquatic Environments. SEPRO Corporation, USA.

Van Oosterhout, F. and Lürling, M., 2012. Effects of the novel ‘flock & lock’ lake restoration technique on Daphnia in Lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands). Journal of Plankton Research, 33(2), 255-263. 


Zamparas, M., Gianni, A., Stathi, P., Deligiannakis, Y., Zacharias, I., 2012. Removal of phosphate from natural waters using innovative modified bentonites. Applied Clay Science, 62-63, 101-106.



Damment, S., Secker, R., Shen, V., Lorenzo, V., Rodriguez, M., 2011. Long-term treatment with lanthanum carbonate reduces mineral and bone abnormalities in rats with chronic renal failure. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 26(6), 1803-1812. 


Davies, S., 2011. Phoslock Risk Assessment: An overview of the risks to the aquatic environment associated with the use of Phoslock. Phoslock Europe GmbH.

Damment, S.J.P., 2011. Pharmacology of the phosphate binder, Lanthanum carbonate. Renal Failure, 33 (2), 217-224. 


Geurts, J.J.M., van de Wouw, P.A.G., Smolders, A.J.P., Roelofs, J.G.M., Lamers, L.P.M., 2011. Ecological restoration on former agricultural soils: feasibility of in situ phosphate fixation as an alternative to top soil removal. Ecological Engineering, 37(11), 1620-1629.


Gibbs, M., Hickey, C.W., Özkundakci, D., 2011. Sustainability assessment and comparison of efficacy of four P-inactivation agents for managing internal phosphorus loads in lakes: sediment incubations. Hydrobiologia, 658(1), 253-275. 


Van Oosterhout, F., Lürling, M., 2011. Effects of the novel “Flock & Lock” lake restoration technique on Daphnia in Lake Rauwbraken (The Netherlands). J. Plankton Res. 33, 255–263. 



Egemose, S., Reitzel, K., Andersen, F.Ø., Flindt, M.R., 2010. Chemical lake restoration products: sediment stability and phosphorus dynamics. Environmental Science & Technology, 44(3), 985-991. 


Groves, S., 2010. Eco-toxicity Assessment of Phoslock. Report number: TR 022/09. Phoslock Water Solutions Ltd, Australia.

Lürling, M. and Tolman, Y., 2010. Effects of lanthanum and lanthanum-modified clay on growth, survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna. Water Research, 44 (1), 309-319. 



Afsar, A., Groves, S., 2009. Comparison of P-inactivation efficacy and ecotoxicity of Alum and Phoslock®. PWS Rep. Number IR.

Bervoets, A.R., Behets, G.J., Schryvers, D., Roels, F., Yang, Z., Verberckmoes, S.C., Damment, S.J., Dauwe, S., Mubiana, V.K., Blust, R., De Broe, M.E., D'Haese, P.C., 2009. Hepatocellular transport and gastrointestinal absorption of lanthanum in chronic renal failure. Kidney International, 75(4), 389-398. 


Damment, S.J., Cox, A.G., Secker, R., 2009. Dietary administration in rodent studies distorts the tissue deposition profile of lanthanum carbonate; brain deposition is a contamination artefact? Toxicology Letters, 188 (3), 223-229. 


Haghseresht, F., Wang, S.B., Do, D.D., 2009. A novel lanthanum modified bentonite, Phoslock®, for phosphate removal from wastewaters. Applied Clay Science, 46 (4), 369-375.


Hickey, C.W. and Gibbs, M.M., 2009. Lake sediment phosphorus release management decision support and risk assessment framework. New Zealand Journal of Marine Freshwater Research, 43 (3), 819-856. 


Hutchison, A.J., Barnett, M.E., Krause, R.J., Siami, G.A., 2009. Lanthanum carbonate study group. Lanthanum carbonate treatment, for up to 6 years, is not associated with adverse effects on the liver in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 receiving hemodialysis. Clinical Nephrology, 71(3), 286 - 289.

MOE., 2009. Phoslock Toxicity Testing with Three Sediment Dwelling Organisms (Hyalella Azteca, Hexagenia spp. and Chironomus dilutes) and Two Water Column Dwelling Organisms (Rainbow Trout and Daphnia magna). Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Ontario.

Neven, E., Dams, G., Postnov, A., Chen, B., De Clerck, N., De Broe, M.E., D'Haese, P.C., Persy, V., 2009. Adequate phosphate binding with lanthanum carbonate attenuates arterial calcification in chronic renal failure rats. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 24 (6), 1790-1799.


Persy, V.P., Behets, G.J., De Broe, M.E., D'Haese, P.C., 2009. Management of hyperphosphatemia in patients with end-stage renal disease: focus on lanthanum carbonate. International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease, 2, 1–8. 


Phoslock Water Solutions Ltd., 2009. Toxicity Assessment of Phoslock & Lanthanum to Human Health. Report number: TR 023/09. Australia.

Watson – Leung, T., 2009. Phoslock® Toxicity Testing with Three Sediment Dwelling Organisms (Hyalella azteca, Hexagenia spp. and Chironomus dilutus) and Two Water Column Dwelling Organisms (Rainbow Trout and Daphnia magna). Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment Etobicoke.

Yungen, L., Kun, T., Winks, A., 2009. Water Eutrophication Prevention by Phoslock Flocculation and Sediment Capping Reaction. International Conference on Environmental Science and Information Application Technology, 349-352. 



Damment, S.J. and Pennick, M., 2008. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 47 (9), 553-563. 


Ecotox, 2008. Toxicity Assessment of Granulated Phoslock® to the Cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia. ECOTOX Services, Australia. 

Ross, G., Haghseresht, F., Cloete, T.E., 2008. The effect of pH and anoxia on the performance of Phoslock®, a phosphorus binding clay. Harmful Algae, 7(4), 545-550. 


Vopel, K., Gibbs, M., Hickey, C.W., Quinn, J., 2008. Modification of sedimentewater solute exchange by sediment-capping materials: effects on O2 and pH. Marine & Freshwater Research, 59(12), 1101 - 1110. 



Altmann, P., Barnett, M.E., Finn, W.F., 2007. Cognitive function in stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients on hemodialysis: No adverse effects of lanthanum carbonate compared with standard phosphate-binder therapy. Kidney International, 71(3), 252-259. 


EnTox, 2007. Risk Assessment – Human health risk of elevated lanthanum in drinking water resources. National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicity. 


Bervoets, A.R., Oste, L., Behets, G.J., Dams, G., Blust, R., Marynissen, R., Geryl, H., De Broe, M.E., D'Haese, P.C., 2006. Development and reversibility of impaired mineralization associated with lanthanum carbonate treatment in chronic renal failure rats. Bone, 38 (6), 803-810.


Ecotox, 2006a. Toxicity Assessment of Two PhoslockTM Formulations to the Eastern Rainbowfish. ECOTOX Services, Australia.

Ecotox, 2006b. Toxicity Assessment of PhoslockTM to the Freshwater Shrimp Macrobrachium sp. ECOTOX Services, Australia.

Landman, M., Brijs, J., Glover, C., Ling, N., 2006. Lake Okareka and Tikitapu fish health monitoring. Environment Bay of, New Zealand.

Pennick, M., Dennis, K., Damment, S.J., 2006. Absolute bioavailability and disposition of lanthanum in healthy human subjects administered lanthanum carbonate. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46 (7), 738-746. 


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Behets, G.J., Verberckmoes, S.C., Oste, L., Bervoets, A.R., Salome, M., Cox, A.G., Denton, J., De Broe, M.E., D'Haese, P.C., 2005. Localization of lanthanum in bone of chronic renal failure rats after oral dosing with lanthanum carbonate. Kidney International, 67(5), 1830-1836. 



Behets, G.J., Verberckmoes, S.C., D'Haese, P.C., De Broe, M.E., 2004a. Lanthanum carbonate: a new phosphate binder. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 13(4), 403-409. 


Behets, G.J., Dams, G., Vercauteren, S.R., Damment, S.J., Bouillon, R., De Broe, M.E., D'Haese, P.C., 2004b. Does the phosphate binder lanthanum carbonate affect bone in rats with chronic renal failure? Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 15(8), 2219-2228. 


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Martin, M.L.H., Hickey, C.W., 2004. Determination of HSNO Ecotoxic Thresholds for Granular Phoslock (Eureka 1 Formulation) Phase 1: Acute Toxicity. NIWA Report Number HAM2004-137. NIWA, New Zealand


D'Haese, P.C., Spasovski, G.B., Sikole, A., Hutchison, A., Freemont, T.J., Sulkova, S., Swanepoel, C., Pejanovic, S., Djukanovic, L., Balducci, A., Coen, G., Sulowicz, W., Ferreira, A., Torres, A., Curic, S., Popovic, M., Dimkovic, N., De Broe, M.E., 2003. A multicenter study on the effects of lanthanum carbonate (Fosrenol®) and calcium carbonate on renal bone disease in dialysis patients. Kidney International,63 (85), 73-78.


Robb, M., Greenop, B., Goss, Z., Douglas, G., Adeney, J., 2003. Application of Phoslock®, an innovative phosphorus binding clay, to two Western Australian waterways: preliminary findings. Hydrobiologia, 494(3), 237-243. 



NICNAS, 2001. National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme Full Public Report Lanthanum Modified Clay NA/899.


Barry, M.J. and Meehan, B.J., 2000. The acute and chronic toxicity of lanthanum to Daphnia carinata. Chemosphere, 41(10), 1669-1674. 


Stauber, J.L., 2000. Toxicity Testing of Modified Clay Leachates Using Freshwater Organisms. CSIRO Centre for Advanced Analytical Chemistry Energy Technology. Report Number: ETIR267R. 

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